From an article in Wikipedia, titled “Time Management”, time management is the process of planning the best way to organize the things that you need and want to do so that you can accomplish them all. Time management refers to a range of skills, tools, and techniques used to manage time when accomplishing specific tasks, projects and goals. This set encompasses a wide scope of activities, and these include planning, allocating, setting goals, delegation, analysis of time spent, monitoring, organizing, scheduling, and prioritizing. Many people sometimes forget about that successful people all manage time well. They value every second of their time, and always make sure that none of it is wasted. In order to be successful, time management is important because students must balance their time wisely among many commitments such as classes, study time, family, friends, and possibly employment.
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If time is not managed properly, it is easy for students to put off the important tasks or project and concern only on favour activities. Procrastination most likely to happen when there is the least of time management. From an article in Wikipedia, titled “Procrastination”, procrastination refers to the deferment of actions or tasks to a later time. Psychologists often cite such behavior as a mechanism for coping with the anxiety associated with starting and/or completing any task or decision. It affects most students at some stage of their studies. They attempt to escape doing a specific task that full with boredom. However, the task which is not
getting started can make you feeling stress and ultimately panic in which it will influence students’ academic performance. The way to overcome this is to break down each task into small sub tasks. A schedule can help you dedicate appropriate time to each sub task. Students have to maintain productivity and concentration by scheduling difficult tasks during the most productive work time.
Students can use their study time wisely and balance other commitments by having a proper designed and organized schedule. How to design and put on a task into a schedule are the key terms. Consider investing some time into learning how to go about doing this. Students can invest the time upfront and get back the dividend by getting setup a weekly schedule. Thus, students will find the goals and objectives that they have set are achievable.
1.2 Statement of Problem
University life is full of challenges. Most of the FPPSM students find it hard to balance their studies, campus activities, work and sport. Furthermore, students always complaint that they are unable to study and do assignment till last minutes. This will lead to poor academic performance. Sometimes, they spend too much time for leisure activities and left their assignments behind their mind. All these problems arise because most of the students do not manage their time properly. So, it is important to know how FPPSM students manage their time to keep a balanced perspective on all areas associated with university life.
Most of the FPPSM students have low level of personal discipline. So, they seldom follow the time schedule that they had made themselves. In addition, they also seldom follow the time that plan by lecturer in the course outline. They fail to notice the several important weeks that cause late submission.
Furthermore, most of the FPPSM students feel stress and cannot concentrate in the lecture room. They suffer stress because they do not manage their time properly. The students may not have skill to manage theirs. So, they will feel stress when they cannot finish their assignments or study on time. As a result, they will sacrifice their sleeping time to finish all their work. These are all the reasons why the research emphasizes on time management among FPPSM students.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of research is to investigate the awareness of FPPSM students about the importance of time management. This study will lead students to understand more about time management and inquire into the importance of time management to their academic performance. From the research, relationship among the effectiveness of time management and academic performance can be identified.
Besides that, the research will survey the method used by successful students and explain how the successful students manage time in order to balance their studying time and extra-curricular activities. By conducting this research, FPPSM students may get more detailed information about how the successful students use their time wisely among school activities and their personal life or social life. The research may identify the ways of FPPSM students used to release their stress by using leisure time. Usually, an effectiveness time management through leisure activities can help to overcome the academic stress. Stress is indirectly affected to the academic performance.
The research will analyze the life style of FPPSM students and students may learn the importance of balance their study life with leisure time. It helps to release stress and make the study become more effectiveness. The research expected bring awareness toward students to maximize their time and make them used the time more wisely.
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of this study are:
To investigate the effectiveness of time management on the academic performance of FPPSM student.
To investigate the difference between the successful students and other students in time management.
To determine the number of students with proper schedule planning.
1.5 Research Questions
How effective is the time management against FPPSM student academic performance?
What are the differences between successful students and other students on time management?
How many of FPPSM students have proper schedule planning?
1.6 Significance of the study
The finding of this research will help FPPSM students to manage their time wisely by knowing which items they need to pay attention to. Assignments that are due or revision for an upcoming test will be important. In addition, the finding will enable the students to lead a more balanced life by helping them find the time and energy to devote to all the important areas of their life. Besides, students who are under stress caused by work load pressure can be easily avoided with the help of time management. Work will complete on time and their stress level will stay at a normal range and leave a positive effect on their health.
This research will be conducted in Faculty of Management & Human Resource Development(FPPSM) the respondents are the first, second and third year of Human Resource Development, Management Technology, Marketing, Accounting, and Industrial Psychology students. The respondents are 50 students from FPPSM between the ages of 19-25 years old and they were selected randomly. The questionnaires were distributed on the 3rd and 4th February 2010.
2.1 Definition of Time Management
First of all, this part of research will start by introducing the definition of time management. Clarke stated that time management is a system, set of tools and skills that when combined will help you to gain more out of your allocated time and also let you be able to use your time to accomplish what you want and what you need to accomplish. In addition, time management is the control and focus of a person’s actions to making everything do fit into specific durations and schedules, and try hard to make that fit happen, whether or not our tasks can actually be accomplished at that time.
As we know time management is life management. It is the core skill around which everything that you do revolves around. It can be said that the quality of your life will be determined by the quality of your time management. Time management is really the external demonstration of self-discipline in your life. The most valuable thing human beings have are time. We can always get more money but once we spend our time it is gone forever. Firstly, to be a successful student they need to realize how valuable time is and then they need to understand the principles if they are going to manage it effectively. (“Time Management”)
In addition, time management includes your day-to-day activities as well as your long term future wants and goals you have set for yourself. Some skills included in time management are planning, goal setting, managing your task or scheduling things you need to get done or would like to do. A
diary is a very useful tool to help student manage their time wisely. In a diary they can schedule their planned things to do ahead of time by knowing what they need to pay attention to such as assignment and revision for an upcoming test. However, improve of time management skills is essential for student to reduce their stress and anxiety which comes from their university life.
2.2 Effectiveness of Time Management on the Academic Performance of FPPSM Student.
According to Dozier (2008), with appropriate time management, students will be able to have more accomplishment. He also stated that the benefits of time management. College students will be able to live an ordered life with more extra time. Besides, college students will be able to reduce physical stress and avoid procrastination.
According to the study of Ohio University from Karpinski (as cited in Kok and Teo, 2009) result of academic will be influenced if someone spent too much time online. Two hundred and nineteen of Facebook users were investigated by a research and find that undergraduates had grade point averages around 3 to 3.5 is a Facebook users On the other hand, students can get the higher GPAs if their less involve in Facebook. The same situation will occur if student addicted in playing game. If students can manage their free time or leisure time well, maybe it can avoid their result from getting bad. Someone will forget to do revision if he or she playing game without control. Student who addicted in game even be talk to study but he or she maybe always thinking about their game. It will totally jeopardize their performance in school and social relationship.
The research paper by Ranjitamisra and McKean (2009) investigated the inter relationship among academic stress, anxiety, time management and leisure satisfaction among 249 university undergraduates by age and gender. The results have shown that females experienced higher self-imposed stress and more physiological reactions to stressors than males. They are managing their time more efficiently than males. From the results, we can find that time management has strongly correlated to academic stress. In addition, state anxiety had a greater association with reactions to stressors than trait anxiety. Besides, we also find that leisure activities will typically reduce academic stress.
In the research titled “Total time and efficient time management”, Study, Study combine to Test, and Rest programming are the factor inherent that will affected to learning and retention (Izawa, 1999). From the research, time management may affect the effectiveness of learning process.
Besides, according to Weissberg et al. (as cited in Schumm, 1992), time management is important to most of the undergraduate students and it becomes their primary personal need to make the learning process be more effective. College students are burdened by coursework, assignment, part-time jobs, and extracurricular activities. The time management skill is a method to improve undergraduate students’ self-control. Briton & Tesser (as cited in Schumm, 1992) found that there is a relationship among student self-report and their grade point averages.
2.3 Difference between the Successful Students and Other Students in Time Management.
There was several view point from expert about become a successful students by managing time wisely.
Apps (1990) stated that methods of successful students are used to manage their time. The students are blocked to learning mainly cause by time-stealers. Time stealers means that we do not have awareness when time flying. Time stealers include procrastination, unclear priorities, daydreaming, frustration and anxiety. On the other hand, successful students are time savers and time makers. Time savers means that save other time by eliminating the time-stealers. Time-savers include time inventory, weekly time plan, monthly calendar, “to-do” list and saying no. Then, time-makers refer to gain more time in life. Time makers include working more efficiently, using spare moments effectively and storing time. (Apps, 1990)
According to Rochita (2009), many college students find it hard to balance their time with study and other social activities. Most of them are distracted by social activities and unable to cope with the study. So, college students need to manage or organize their time to maintain their CGPA. Firstly, they can go to a quite place to study instead of study in the dorm. It is because students may be distracted by their roommate. Then, college students should stay organized by writing down all the planning in a planner or notebook. In addition, college students should keep a to-do list above their desks to know what they are supposed to do every day. Lastly, college students should get rid of the clutter.
Furthermore, Grabmeier (2009) discussed about the effects of procrastination. Lack of quality of work is one of the effects. It will also lead to students’ academic performance and the most important is students’ work does not accomplish before due date. Besides, Grabmeier also suggested some ways on how to become a successful student.
From the research conducted by Britton &Glynn (as cited in Schumm, 1992), ninety freshmen were surveyed using an instrument that included items related to choosing goals and sub goals, prioritizing goals, generating tasks and subtasks from the goals, listing the tasks on a “to-do” list, scheduling them, and then carrying them out. In the article, it stated that short-range planning, time attitudes and long-range planning are playing roles in college students’ academic performance. In order to become a successful college student, short-range planning and time attitudes are important to the cumulative grade point average. From this article, an effectiveness time management may be one of the factor affect to their academic performance.
2.4 Number of Students with Proper Schedule Planning.
Ex-Ramapo students’ return for panel discussion with Class of 2010 which report by Loffredo (2010) discussed about, students need manage their time well. For example, balance study time, socializing, entertainment and sport to keep healthy life. Maybe students can finish their work in right time without do until night or finish last minutes. If students finish their work in early time, maybe mistake can be reducing. It can help student get the good mark in assignment.
Besides, from the article “Students learn to manage time” from University Counselling Centre sponsors programme to help students succeed and learn to manage time. The author of this article is Jackson, (2004) claimed that student need to manage their time in study and socializing. This is because students can improve their relationship between friends. Daily schedule is needed to manage their time more effectiveness. Stress maybe can be reduced if students have good time management. The more important thing will be done first before it is too late.
According to Barnes (1992), an effective learning depends on self-awareness. The awareness of students may affect the effectiveness of study and directly give effect to the academic performance of students. A research conducted by Maddox (as cited in Barnes, 1992) explained that studying in the afternoon is more efficient than studying at midnight. A proper time management may reduce students’ hour of studying. Besides that, a good time management could hinder the unnecessary things from consuming more time. The unnecessary things may cause time being wasted. Time management should be measurable. Students may manage their study by including appropriate time for leisure. Students should learn to indentify and list the priority things. Based on Barnes’s opinion, time planning is useful and should be a guideline but should also be flexible. The flexibility of time management allows us to deal with the unexpected things.
Then, Hirsch (2001) stated that “life is what happens when you are making other plans” (p.102). It means life is full of unexpected events that can interfere with carefully planned schedules. While some interruptions can be avoided by planning activities to make sure each activity are done properly, other things could come up unpredictably. However, no schedule will work all the time.
2.5 Past Research
This research choose the researches of “A comparison between the Time-management Skills and Academic Performance of Mature and Traditional-entry University Students” conducted by Trueman and Hartley (1996) and “How Business Students Spend Their Time – Do They Really Know?” conducted by Tanner and Maples et.al as the references to conduct this research.
The respondents of the research of Trueman were all the first-year students of psychology at Keele that were 293 students (Trueman, 1996). On the other hand, the respondents of the research conducted by Tanner were 212 business major students (Tanner & Maples et.al). For our research, there will be 50 respondents from the Faculty of Management and Human Resource Development (FPPSM), UTM.
The research conducted by Trueman (1996) focused on the relationship between time management skill and the first year students with different ages while the research conducted by Tanner & Maples et. al focused on the awareness of business students spending their time. However, our research focuses on how FPPSM students manage their time and it includes first, second and third year students.
The research instrument used by Tanner (1996) was logbook. The students were asked to record the time they spent for each activity for a period of one week. However, the research instrument that our group used is questionnaire and interview.
From the research conducted by Trueman (1996), he found that the older mature students (aged more than 25 years) had a better time management skills than traditional-entry students (aged less than 21 years) and borderline mature students (aged 21-25 years). In addition, female students have a better time management skill than male students. However, our research does not study these aspects. Furthermore, the research showed no differences between time management skills and academic performance. However, our research will to study the relationship between time management and students’ performance.
From the research conducted by Tanner and Maple et.al, he found that technological distraction caused business students scarified their study time without realizing it. So, our research will determine the number of students who have proper schedule planning.
The past research helped our group to have an idea of how to conduct our research and as a guideline for our research.
3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This section discusses the methodology of the research. The main purpose of the research is to investigate the awareness of FPPSM students about the importance of time management. The respondents are 50 students from FPPSM. Data for the research will be extracted from the questionnaires and also through an interview session.
3.2 Research Instruments
In this research, two methods of research instruments had been chosen to gather the primary data. These instruments are questionnaire for quantitative research methodology and interview for qualitative research methodology. A set of 50 sheets of questionnaire containing 18 questions where all of the questions are closed-ended or open-ended questions (Appendix A). There are different types of questions to be asked such as likert-scale questions, listing/choice questions, ranking questions in the questionnaire. In this study, the questionnaires were distributed to 50 respondents who are students from FPPSM. Students from FPPSM were selected to answer sets of questionnaire.
The qualitative data for this research comes from interview. We are going to interview two students from FPPSM. One of the interviewee who is a member of Majlis Perwakilan Pelajar (MPP), and another interviewee is a student from FPPSM who CGPA below 3.5. In addition, we
prepare a set of questions before the interview (Appendix B). The reason of choosing this method is a lot of important ideas or opinions that cannot be collected through questionnaires.
3.3 Respondents of the Study
The respondents are from first, second and third year of Human Resource Development, Management Technology, Marketing, Accounting, and Industrial Psychology students from FPPSM. A total of 50 questionnaires were distributed to students at different courses and years in February 2010. A total of 50 students from FPPSM returned the questionnaires.
The interviewees chosen were Ms Lai Yit Sien and another student who CGPA below 3.5.The reasons for chosen Ms Lai Yit Sien as interviewee are she can manage their study and extra-curricular well, and maintain her CGPA by obtained Dean List in past semester. Ms Lai Yit Sien is a third year student of Human Resource Development. She is a member of Majlis Perwakilan Pelajar (MPP). On the other hand, another interviewee is a second year student of Human Resource Development. Her CGPA is below 3.5.
3.4 Research Procedure
A pilot study was conducted on 1st February 2010 to access the validity of the research instrument. This pilot study was done before we distribute the questionnaires. Each group prepared five sets of questionnaire and distributed them to other group randomly for pilot test purpose.
During the actual study, the questionnaires were distributed to the FPPSM students who are first, second and third year of Human Resource Development, Management Technology, Marketing, Accounting, and Industrial Psychology students. Respondents were approached with an initial question of whether they have scheduling or planning activities for their daily life. All the questionnaires collected after the respondents answer the questionnaires.
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3.5 Data Analysis
To analyse the data, the data from questionnaire were calculated and entered into computer manually. Results were presented through frequency counts and other descriptive statistics. Graphs, tables, charts and etc. were used to provide a clear picture on the data analysis. Interview data were used to validate the data from the questionnaire. The data were transferred into writing form.
4.0 FINDING AND DISCUSSION
This section discusses the finding and analysis of the research. The finding and analysis in this past will answer the research question of the research. Time management among FPPSM students can be identified through the section below.
4.2.1 Number of Students from Each Course
Figure A Distribution of Respondents Based on Courses
Figure A shows the distribution of respondents involved in this research based on courses offered at FPPSM. There were 11 students from Bachelor of Science (Human Resource Development), 12 students from Bachelor of Management (Technology), Bachelor of Management (Marketing), and Bachelor of Psychology (Industrial and Organizational Psychology) each other. There were three students from Bachelor of Accountancy. Therefore, the total number of respondents was 50 students.
4.2.2 Year of Students
Figure B Distribution of Respondents Based on Year of Students
Figure B shows distribution of respondents involved in this research based on year of students. There were 34% of students from first year (17 students), 32% students from second year (16 students), and 34% students from third year (17 students).
Figure C Distribution of Respondents Based on Gender
Figure C shows the gender of FPPSM students involved in this research. There were 38 (76%) female respondents and the other 12 (24%) respondents were male.
Figure D CGPA of FPPSM students Involved in This Research
Figure D shows that the CGPA of respondents in this research. 29 out of 50 students achieved the CGPA 3.5 to 4.0. Twenty students have achieved 3.0-3.49, and only one student achieved the CGPA 2.5 to 2.99. Furthermore, there were no students’ CGPA were below 2.5.
4.3 Relationship between Time Management and Academic Performance
4.3.1 Effective Time Management
Figure E Frequency of Distribution in Surfing the Internet of Effective Time Management (extra-activities).
Figure E shows the time spent by respondent surfing the Internet in a day. There were around 50 percent of the respondents spent less than three hours surfing the Internet daily and 30 percent of the respondents spent more than six hours surfing internet in a day. Surfing internet may be a way to help students to get the information about study and assignment. On the other hand, some of FPPSM students are addicted in surfing internet.
Figure F Frequency of Distribution on the Elements of Effective Time Management (extra-activities).
Figure F shows the frequency of distribution on the elements in effective time management. There are 25 out of 50 respondents agree that they have the habit of exercise at least once a week. Besides that, there are around 21 respondents agree that they go for shopping, watch movie and other entertainment at least once a month. There are a number of respondents that are about 35 percent of the respondents having entertainment at least once in 2 weeks. Entertainment like shopping and watching movie are the ways to help students to release stress. However, students should avoid having too much entertainment in their life because it may affect their academic performance.
Figure G Frequency Distribution of Elements in Effectiveness Time Management (study).
Figure G shows the time of revision that most preferred by FPPSM students. Majority of the respondents start their revision a week before examination. There were not more than ten percent of the respondents start their revision a day before examination.
Do not procrastinate
Study time plan
Balance in social and study
Table A Frequency of Distribution on the Elements (study) of Effective Time Management.
According to Table A, majority of the respondents that are more than 50 percents of the respondents agree that they do not procrastinate, having study plan, and able to balance both their social activities and study.
4.3.2 Non-Effective Time Management
Participate in social activities and neglect study
Time full of unnecessary socializing
11Table B Frequency of Distribution on the Elements of Non-Effective Time Management.
From Table B, it shows the frequency distribution of elements in non-effectiveness time management among FPPSM students. There are 11 out of 50 respondents disagree strongly that they will participate in social activities even they know they should be studying, and their time full of unnecessary socializing. Generally, more than half of the respondents disagree that they will participate in social activities even they know they should be studying, and unnecessary socializing takes up too much of their days.
The finding able to answer the research objective that effective time management affects academic performance. Based on the findings, there are around 60 percent of FPPSM students getting CGPA more than 3.5 and having effectiveness time management. This proves that there are a relationship between effective time management and academic performance.
According to Figure E, F, and G, they show the frequency of distribution on the elements of effective time management in extra-activities and also study. There are more than 50 percent of the respondents able to balance their extra-activities and study. There is not much difference between the numbers of respondents that surf the Internet less than three hours per day and exceed six hours per day. Internet is the most important tool in students’ life. Students may surf the Internet for entertainment, social networking, or information searching. Besides that, most of the respondents have a habit in exercise at least once a week. Exercise is a way to release stress. Thus, they are able to perform well with healthy body and mind. It is because exercise can facilitate blood circulation. So, they are easy to memorize the note if fresh in mind.
Self discipline is one of the elements of effective time management. According to the findings, most of the respondents do not procrastination to complete assignments. It is because they have good discipline in managing their time. Most of them can follow their study schedule. Therefore, they can do their tasks systematically to prevent last minute work. As a result, they can produce more perfect and less mistake assignments in order to get the higher marks for their assignments. Indirectly, it will improve their academic performance.
According to Barnes (1992), an effective learning depends on self-awareness. The awareness of students may affect the effectiveness of study and directly give effect to the academic performance. Based on the findings, majority of the respondents have self-awareness. Therefore, they aware their own responsibilities as a student are to accomplish their assignments and get the good results. In order to fulfill their responsibilities, they always have time schedule to finish assignments on time. Therefore, marks will not be deducted by lecturer. The effectiveness of time management will improve the academic performance.
From the findings, most of the respondents have study time plan and do revision a week before examination. It shows the respondents feel that organizing and planning their time to study and do revision is important to their academic performance. A proper time planning may reduce students’ hour of studying at midnight. A research conducted by Maddox (as cited in Barnes, 1992) explained that studying in the afternoon is more efficient than studying at midnight. Besides that, the students can choose the more suitable time for them to study. By having an effective time plan, respondents have sufficient time to study and understand the content of study. As a result, they can score better in the examination.
4.4 Difference between Successful Students and Other Students in Time Management
Successful student(more than CGPA3.5)
Other student (lower than CGPA3.5)
1. What is your opinion about time management?
Way to manage time in daily activities
Way to distribute time and comple
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