One of the health promotion model adopted for the “Swine Flu Project” is the Health Belief Model (Becker 1974) and it aims in creating a physical environment that promotes choice of a healthier lifestyle (Ewles and Simnett 1999). This model suggests that people need to possess some kind of clue to take an action upon behaviour styles and health related decisions. But the individuals hardly implement healthy behaviour to prevent specific diseases unless they believe in a way that they are susceptible to the disease.
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Health needs Assessment is a systematic process of identifying the health issues, targeting the needs of populations and taking an action in a cost effective way. Within the present study, these assessments were categorised in to 5 major steps that aim in obtaining relevant information about the topic and suggesting an action course (National Institute of Clinical Excellence, 2005). This assessment helps in getting a good knowledge on local contextual factors which ensure that any proposed intervention fits exactly with the Oxford Brookes University area context. Additionally, the base line characteristics pertaining to the disease prevalence assist in understanding the extent of change after the implementation of strategies (Stevans, Gillam 1998).
Nonetheless, this method is not suitable for the risk analysis study and thus without considering the possible barriers that may met in the long run, the success of this assessment programme seems to be highly questionable (Stevans, Gabbay 1991). Resource availability including funding, time and presence of other issues that compete for attention are the primary risk factors that need to be considered immediately. Besides this, the needs assessment is not effective in overcoming the behavioural changes of at intrapersonal level.
Within the recent years, the United Kingdom has observed a notable increase in the cases pertaining to Swine Flu. Swine Flu (or Swine Influenza) is a respiratory illness caused by influenza virus (H1N1 strain) that infect the pig’s respiratory tract and result in continuous nasal secretions, reduced appetite, barking-like cough and listless actions. World Health Organisation declared the virus affecting the disease process as pandemic (June 2009) and the period following this year was announced as a post pandemic period (August 2010). By the year of 2009, a total number of 400 deaths were recorded in England as a consequence of disease outbreak. Subsequently in the year of 2010, around 4.88 million doses of H1N1 vaccine was provided to specific priority groups in United Kingdom (especially in England). The incidence as well as the prevalence rates of the disease was observed to be higher within children of less than 5 years age. Before analysing the disease process, it is very important to understand the concept of health promotion and its effective application in the disease process (Department of Health 2009).
Anecdotally, to reduce the incidence of causative virus (H1N1 Influenza) the government must frame an action plan with an ultimate goal of improving the life quality and well being (Lipatov et al., 2004). The methods to enhance health associated behavioural changes, promoting environmental advocacy, providing more mechanical ventilators in communities and organisations (where in which the people accessibility is persisted at a higher rate), reducing the congestion and overfilling of areas with people and maintaining social distancing (another tactic) can be helpful. Usage of alcohol based sanitizers or foam hand sanitizers, covering face masks and wearing gloves (to reduce the likelihood of hand-to-eye, hand-to-mouth transmissions) need to effectively followed by all the individuals regardless of their age, sex and social class. Additionally, respiratory hygiene as a necessary intervention should be implemented and the awareness with relation to its benefits must be generalised to the local public (Centre for Disease Control, 2009). The hygiene within toilets, wash basins and other related sanitary places need to be monitored on a regular basis. Lastly, the government and local health organisations must necessitate the introduction of Vaccine (2009 Flu Pandemic Vaccine) to all the individuals to gain protection against the virus and its deleterious effects (Food and Drug Administration 2009). The designed action plan framework may assist in a way by minimising the incidence and disease prevalence thereby promoting health and well being.
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Knowledge of pandemic influenza virus persists to increase at a higher pace and the majority of clinical guidance that existed seems to be valid. Health promotion (a process of facilitating people to enhance the control over their health) strategies with relation to Swine Flu must designed to focus on the disease behaviour and its deleterious effects upon the individuals (Wise, Signal 2009). Health promotion approaches to the disease process and the related efforts placed in to the education, community development, policy designing, legislation and regulation are equally legitimate for the prevention of this disease, its progression and associated problems. In addition, the health promotion strategies implemented also play an effective role in reducing the health inequalities or variations that persist at a higher rate in United Kingdom (Wise, Signal 2009).
The present report provides an overview of the various methods targeted towards disease prevention in Oxford Brookes University. In addition, it highlights of models like Health assessment, Health Beliefs together with their usefulness and limitations.
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