Effects of Bullying and Strategies for Bullying Prevention

Modified: 21st Nov 2017
Wordcount: 2071 words

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Learning outcome 5

(5.1) Different types of bullying

Bullying can have a wide range of negative effects on a child. It can happen at any age, any time and in many forms, not only face to face but also via mobile phones and online. The table below shows the different types of bullying and the effects.

Types of bullying


Effects of bullying


Physical bullying occurs where contact is made by kicking, hitting, pushing, poking etc

  • Low self esteem
  • Will get hurt
  • Sadness (feelings)
  • Loneliness
  • Scared/afraid


Causing distress to an individual by threatening physical violence, undermining a child’s self confidence by telling them they are useless & worthless

  • Low self esteem
  • Self confidence (low)
  • Sadness
  • Changes in sleep
  • Changes in behaviour
  • Changes in eating patterns
  • Self harming


Insulting the victim, intimidating, name calling & teasing

  • Sadness
  • Low self esteem
  • Depression
  • School performance


Rude hand gestures or threatening text messages

  • Sadness
  • Isolated
  • Depressed
  • Singled out
  • Self harm


Verbal & non verbal racist comments, physical attacks or encouraging other children to behave in a racist way

  • Low self esteem
  • Isolated
  • Self harming
  • Hurt & anger
  • Religion failure
  • depressed


Can be physical, emotional or verbal & can also include the use of technology. Sending sexual explicit texts (written or pornographic) &unwanted sexual attention

  • harassed
  • low self esteem
  • sadness
  • scared
  • changes in sleep
  • changes in diet


Internet, email or any other type of digital technology is used to intimidate, threaten or upset someone. Includes the use of social networking & email communication

  • low self esteem
  • sadness
  • changes in attitude
  • changes in behaviour
  • self harming
  • intimidated
  • threatened
  • upset
  • scared



(5.2) Effects of bullying on children and young people

The different types of bullying that have been identified in the table (physical, emotional, verbal, non-verbal, racial, and sexual and cyber) can have a wide range of effects on children and young people, which include the following.

  • Changes in eating habits (reluctance to eat or binge eating)
  • Reluctance to go to school (making up excuses that are made up such as stomach aches and feeling ill and playing truancy)
  • Withdrawn behaviour and reluctance to communicate
  • Seem upset and distressed
  • Their belongings stolen or damaged whilst at school (ripped school uniform or bag or broken equipment)
  • Physical injuries (may not always be visible e.g. hair pulling etc)
  • Might have trouble sleeping
  • Afraid to be on their own or spends too much time alone

The effects of bullying can last a lifetime and have the flowing effects.

  • Self harming (cutting wrists, scratching, hair loss, etc)
  • Suicide
  • Abuse alcohol and other drugs in adolescence and as adults
  • Getting into fights, vandalizing property, and dropping out of school
  • Getting into gangs/ gang fights
  • Socialising with wrong members of the public (drug dealers)
  • Engage in early sexual activity (for females become pregnant at a young age)
  • Have criminal convictions
  • Being abusive towards their partners, spouses or children as adults

Children who witness bullying are more likely to do the following.

  • Have increased use of drugs, alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs
  • Have increased mental health problems, including depression and anxiety
  • Miss or skip school which effects their education

Responding to evidence of bullying

Clear policies and procedures should be followed in the school setting when an allegation has been made or evidence of bullying has been seen. Each school setting will have a anti-bullying and behaviour policy in place outlining what constitutes bullying and the standard of behaviour that is expected in the school.

Anti bullying policy

The anti bullying policy will set out a definition of what constitutes bullying and the different types of bullying that can be experienced. I will include the following.

  • Unacceptable behaviour and definitions of this
  • The responsibilities that the school holds for ensuring that action is taken if allegations are made or bullying is suspected
  • Responsibilities of staff and governors
  • Pupils have the right to learn free from intimidation and fear
  • The needs of the victim are paramount
  • School’s will not tolerate bullying behaviour
  • Bullied pupils will be listened to
  • Reported incidents would be taken seriously and thoroughly investigated

Behaviour policy

The behaviour policy will usually set out the rule and responsibilities of children and teachers within the school setting and the types of behaviour that are not acceptable. It will show the consequences of non-compliance and the procedures that will be followed if unacceptable behaviour takes place. Policies and procedures should come into force to ensure that bullying is stopped, and to make sure it does not happen again.

  • The victim should have a meeting with the teacher to put together strategies in case the situation occurs again
  • Point out that the behaviour that has occurred is unacceptable, and provide information how they are going to be monitored
  • Meeting with staff and other children who have witnessed the bullying should take place to obtain additional evidence
  • Consider if external agencies should get involved
  • Make use of curriculum to restore self esteem in the victim and to discuss bullying and unacceptable behaviour

Behaviour policy for schools would include the following.

  • To create a consistent environment that expects, encourages and recognises good behaviour and one in which everyone feels happy and safe
  • To help pupils develop self respect, self control and accountability for their own behaviour
  • To encourage the partnership between home and school

Staff responsibilities

  • To role model good behaviour and positive relationships
  • To emphasise the importance of values and being valued
  • To provide an effective learning and teaching environment
  • To encourage positive relationships based on kindness, empathy and respect
  • To ensure fair treatment for all regardless of ability, age, sex, or race
  • Show appreciation of the efforts and contributions of everyone

Children should learn to expect recognition for positive behaviour and fair and consistency applied consequences for inappropriate behaviour. Recognition and praise should be given where ever possible for both work and behaviour. These recognitions and praise could be the following.

  • Stickers for good behaviour (warn by the child)
  • Positive recognition to parents for good behaviour
  • House points awarded
  • Good behaviour notes sent home by parents
  • Certificates (presented in assembly)

All these policies and procedures are in place to ensure the school’s expectations and standards are met. All school’s have policies and procedures in place to support staff and children from situations such as bullying to provide a safe and secure environment for the children to learn and be happy in. children should have the right to learn in a safe, secure and anti-bullying environment and these policies help children from doing that. Behaviour policies also help in the school setting by encouraging children and staff to behave how they should and be treated how they would like to be treated I appositive way.



(5.3) Supporting a child when bullying is suspected or alleged

Within a school setting there are policies and procedures in place for the correct procedure to be followed if a child is being bullied or if bullying is suspected. As a support assistant it is very important that they are approachable so that children feel able to confide any instances of bullying. Some children who are being bullied would find it difficult and would be scared to share their feelings and to report the bullying. It is important to reassure the children that they have done the right thing in reporting the bullying, and that they will be 100% supported now that the bullying has been disclosed. Parents should be made aware of the school behaviour and anti-bullying policies to inform them of their child’s rights and the ways that the school can support them.

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When dealing with a child who is being bullied they can be upset but may not show their feelings. It is very important to take the problem seriously. The child has to be listened to and re-assured that they are doing the right thing by sharing their worries and feelings. For parents the signs to look out for if a child is being bullied are.

  • Coming home with damaged or missing clothes, without money they should have, or with scratches or bruises they shouldn’t have
  • Having trouble with homework for no apparent reason
  • Using a different route between home and school
  • Feeling irritable, easily upset or particularly emotional

What can you do if you suspect a child is being bullied?


It is often not easy for children to tell, so it’s important to ask the child about bullying. Let the child know that they can tell you if they have a problem or worries


Listen to all of what is said and do not ask further questions as this would discourage the child to open up and share their feelings


Discuss the problem with the child and how it can be resolved. The child should not be encouraged to retaliate with the bullies as there might be as risk of injury. Help the child to understand that bullying is wrong and that victims should never balme themselves when bulling takes place

Get Help

Identify the places where the bullying is happening. It is important to have the facts before raising the issue. Keep the child and parents informed of what will be happening once the bullying has been reported





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