The research paper focuses on the implications of augmented reality when used in the context of education. Over the past years there have been many experiments and innovations in the field of education and training to improve the educational learning theory regarding knowledge delivery. From the traditional learning tools to virtual education, different technologies have played great roles at different times. Augmented Reality and its supporting technologies have emerged in the field of education and adopted in many domains. In this paper we will review the use of these technologies and it affects in the educational process.
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Augmented Reality is a type of virtual reality that aims to duplicate the world’s environment in a computer. An augmented reality system generates a composite view for the user that is the combination of the real scene viewed by the user and a virtual scene generated by the computer that augments the scene with additional information. The virtual scene generated by the computer is designed to enhance the user’s sensory perception of the virtual world they are seeing or interacting with. The goal of Augmented Reality is to create a system in which the user cannot tell the difference between the real world and the virtual augmentation of it.
Today, augmented reality is quite real in the worlds of education, marketing, gaming and other areas of entertainment. For example, the “first down” line, superimposed on a televised football field, is a rudimentary example of AR. However, the real potential for augmented reality is to enhance teaching and learning. The technology works by overlaying seemingly-real digital experiences (virtual interactive 3D images, words, videos, sounds) on a person’s local environment. In education, that environment is the classroom.
Statement of the problem to be investigated and goal to be achieved
The use and the effectiveness of augmented reality in the field of education and how it can benefit and enhance the learning experience on the current ways in which the larger population educate our children.
Relevance, significance or need for the work
The relevance of the research is; it has been estimated that within the next 15 years almost 75% of jobs in North America will require at least some technology or computer skills. According to Shameena Parveen, co-founder of Edutech, for students to develop the needed skills, schools need to, “move from a rote learning concepts and an ‘I teach-you listen methods to a more active and participatory learning method where learners take responsibility for learning and are engaged participants rather than passive observers. More importantly, what we need our students to have is ‘learning to learn’ as in today’s knowledge economy, we are constantly required to learn, unlearn and relearn.
Elements, hypotheses, theories, or research questions to be investigated
Re-access the impact of augmented reality in a class room setting and how it can improve the educational learning experience when applied or used in the context of education to improve learning.
Limitations and delimitation of the study
The limitations and delimitation of the study is the accuracy of the devices that are used, “accuracy of these devices is less than stellar today. Confirmation that you are within 50-100 yards of your actual location might be good enough for today, but future applications would require much more precise GPS data. Another technical issue arises when users have to download applications to their computer. This should be easily used by everyday users; a technology should be one that does not require downloading or extra devices.
Definition of terms:
“Augmented reality (AR) is a term for a live direct or indirect view of a physical real-world environment whose elements are augmented by virtual computer -generated imagery”
CHAPTER 2. RELEVANCE OF THE RESEARCH (Jenny)
2.1 Historical overview of the theory and research literature
Numerous studies were found that used augmented reality in support of learning. Since human beings continue to learn each day through different experiences, previous researches have shown tremendous scope of using augmented reality for different kind of learning including languages, history, biology, or any specific topics. According to the definition provided by the Nokia Research Centre, augmented reality is an environment that includes both virtual reality and real-world elements . To create an augmented reality, some kind of electronic devices are often used to create the virtual part of the reality to provide additional information for the associated real-world elements. These electronic devices can be special head mounted display (HMD), glasses, or wireless handheld devices such as cellular phones.
Augmented reality can be used in learning languages such as Japanese Kanji learning . It can be done in a game setting where cards with Kanji characters are laid on the table. Each player in the game can hold a PDA. When the PDA displays an icon of a vocabulary for the user to search for, the user searches for the right card with the correct character. When the user point the PDA on the card he has chosen, the PDA displays the corresponding 3D image of the Kanji character. The user would know instantly if he picked the correct card. If the user chose the correct card, he scores a point.
Sumadio and Rambli  used augmented reality to generate 3D virtual objects for teaching high school physics in a small class in Malaysia in 2009. Students were able to see 3D generated objects such as beaker, thermometer, and Bunsen burner in a monitor screen. Students can use marker to rotate the generated objects. The result showed students were more excited to have AR application for learning.
Some augmented reality systems relay on tagged Ids or markers . A marker is placed in the environment as an indicator that an augmented reality is available for providing more information. These applications usually bring convergence of contextual information, mobility, physical world and virtual world together.
Liu and Chu  set up a 2D barcode and handheld augmented reality system called HELLO (Handheld English Learning Organization) to improve students’ English level. 2D barcodes that leveraged the QR Code technology were generated, printed on paper and were placed in various outdoor locations in a school campus in Taiwan. Student can use a PDA phone to scan the 2D barcode. Then the barcode was sent to a back-end server which decoded the barcode. The back-end server identifies the location information of the user, and displays a 3D animated virtual learning partner on the screen that can converse with the user with appropriate context related dialogs.
Liestol  used augmented reality for situation simulations that leveraged the location of the user. For example, the user stood at a location where a historical event took place. A visual situated simulation with audio documentary was played. Liestol described the system could be used to bring the situated simulations with past, present or future objects or events, and help users learn how a place changes over time.
2.2 Summary of what is known and unknown about the topic
In our research, we focus on assessing the impact of using augmented reality in learning English words for small children in the kindergarten.
We reviewed the numerous literatures in the references including the ones mentioned above. Using augmented reality in learning is not new. Wagner and Barakonyi  used augmented reality to help students to learn Japanese Kanji characters. Sumadio and Rambli  used augmented reality for teaching high school physics, which serves as a reference for executing an augmented reality system in a classroom environment. These two researches are both relevant to our studies as we conclude that augmented reality can be used to teach a language, and it is possible to executive an augmented reality system in a classroom environment.
There are a few unknowns in our research. We anticipate that we can modify Wagner and Barakonyi’s augmented reality Kanji learning system for learning English words. We assume that it is possible modify the input to use English words instead of Japanese Kanji. The literatures mentioned above are not meant to be used by small children; rather most of them are designed to be used by students in high schools.
2.4 The contribution this study will make to the field
Contributions of our study including adoption of the augmented reality Kanji learning system into a system for learning English words. We also extend the system from a proof of concept to a pilot experiment that is carried out in a real classroom environment. In previous literatures, little has been done to assess the impact of language learning in a classroom environment. In addition, our research would provide assessment of the using augmented reality to help children develop their cognitive ability.
CHAPTER 3. METHODOLOGY (Raj and Jaysree)
3.1 Research method(s) to be employed
The research methodology would include both qualitative and quantitative analysis. The results of both these analyses will be compared for possible convergence thus leveraging triangulation.
3.2 Specific procedures to be employed
A school will be chosen as a representative sample and about 50 kindergarten students will be pretested on literacy. The test would target the areas viz. word recognition, spelling and pronunciation that the AR game is attempting to reinforce. Based on this test score an experimental (a.k.a treatment) group of 25 students and a control group of 25 students will be determined. Each group would have students of varying ability. However the distribution of test score in each group would be similar to one another. Matched pairs will be identified to formulate and achieve these treatment and control groups. Statistical measurements of pretest scores such as mean, median, mode and standard deviation can be employed to validate the equivalence of the two heterogeneously distributed groups.
The experimental group of students’ learning will be supplemented by the Augmented Reality (AR) enabled hand held devices. Their routine learning would include the Augmented Reality games. The games would help children understand the names of the objects. Hence, it would help them to associate unfamiliar words with corresponding objects. Learning the spelling and the correct pronunciation of the words would be added benefits.
The control group of students will merely follow the traditional learning. Their learning would not be supplemented by the AR enabled hand held device games.
3.3. Formats for presenting results
After predetermined intervals, the effect of AR enabled learning will be evaluated in both groups. The test scores will be compared to their baseline scores obtained in pretest. This would give a measure of variance for each student. This would also help to evaluate the overall progress of the two groups. This data would be fed into quantitative analysis. If the treatment group exhibits significant improvement in grasping power and retention of newly acquired vocabulary the hypothesis will be validated.
In addition to test scores the children in the control group and the teachers who facilitated AR based learning would be interviewed. These interviews would capture the overall feedback of this innovative teaching tool. The questionnaire would attempt to measure various aspects that motivate and sustain learning.
3.4 Projected outcomes
These qualitative interviews would elucidate the impact of AR enabled learning on the following aspects:
Enthusiasm in participation
Receptive and retaining ability
Ease of instructions
Emotions expressed by students (engaged, participatory, calm, fidgety etc)
Sense of accomplishment
The responses gathered will be carefully gleaned and thematically grouped using affinity diagramming. If there is consensus of opinion in favor of the AR enabled instruction, our hypothesis will be proved. The study can be conducted for an extended period to measure the longitudinal effect.
3.6 Reliability and validity
Adherence to the board of education guidelines, informed consent forms will be distributed explaining the research and get signed by teachers and parents of participating children..
3.5 Resource requirements
Will we provide the resources required for this experimentation?
CHAPTER 4. DISCUSSION OF EXPECTATIONS
4.1 Anticipated benefits
Augmented Reality appeals to students as they take control of their own learning, and interact with the real and virtual environments. In learning situations that are partly virtual like AR, students can manipulate objects that are not real, and learn tasks and skills.
It is often said, the best way to learn a language is to go to the country and try speaking it. Augmented Reality offers that possibility without actually leaving your current environment by the use of computer-generated imagery in live-video streams as a way to expand the real-world experience and learning.
Augmented Reality Language Learning aims to improve long term memory by Situated Cognition and Non-Linear Learning. Both these learning experiences improve learning and retentions as It’s interactive, learners will have fun, they will show more interests in learning. It’s not like a teacher spoon feeding some material to them.
It is not enough to present users a list of dry facts. Knowledge must be linked to practices that create a deep impact on users. You must create opportunities for users to put in to practice the dry facts that they have assembled (Kurt Squire et al, 2007). The learning process is shaped further when implemented in an activity
Situated cognition looks at the human cognition and proposes that the user actively absorbs knowledge when he or she makes a connection between facts learned and the environment in which events related to these facts take place
Augmented Reality Language Learning is active and immersive? is not like reading an article, book or lecture and memorizing words. The learner chooses their own pathways and interactions allowing the learner to examine content that can disseminate from content.
While processing information, the information is always changing, this learning causes a ‘cognitive switch’ which is a new way of recording and processing knowledge. Basically we are learning by making connections between pieces of information that seem to have no relation with each other on forehand.
4.2 Projected outcomes
The benefit with AR learning is that there are no “real” errors or mistakes. For example, Learners can talk and interact with virtual characters, objects and other learners without the fear of speaking or making a mistake with a real person. These types of training provide opportunities for more authentic learning and appeal to multiple learning styles. Augmented Reality applications can also enhance textbooks to engage a reader in ways that have never been possible. A virtual field trip to a foreign land with a group of classmates, using AR applications can provide each student with his/her own unique discovery path.
As the Augmented Reality Language Learning Programs are immersive, collaborative and game-like learning, they can be considered to offer distinct learning experiences:
Immersive: Students are immersed and surrounded by a real or fictitious environment that can stimulate language learning experiences.
Social: Students can join a virtual space where language learners can meet others, either to informally practice a language or to participate in more formal classes.
Since students are in control of the environment and there are real mistakes, they can learn at a comfortable pace and comprehend the information through interaction and trial and error. As a result learning is expected to be engaging and beneficial. Additionally, Culture and language can be acquired concurrently and efficiently.
4.3 Practical applications of the findings
With the findings, we can confirm the benefits of AR in learning. Even though we are just testing the usage of AR in learning English, this can be extended to other languages or even other subject matters discussed in the classroom
4.4 Constraints and limitations of the study
It needs x amount of people for set up, or x amount of devices.
There is some learning curve for the instructor and the kids etc.
The study only shows result of one language
in a selected group of students, the result may vary in another classroom environment
In the case of Augmented Reality, the augmentation is conventionally in real-time and in semantic context with environmental elements, such as sports scores on TV during a match. With the help of advanced AR technology (e.g. adding computer vision and object recognition) the information about the surrounding real world of the user becomes interactive and digitally usable. Artificial information about the environment and the objects in it can be stored and retrieved as an information layer on top of the real world view.
4.5 Recommendations for additional studies
€ It can be extended to test AR in different age group of students to find out how effective AR is. We can do a correlation between effectiveness of AR with the age of the students, or AR with any particular subjects
4.6 Contributions to the field of study and advancement of knowledge
With this study, we qualify the benefit of using AR by showing the percentage of improvement in learning. We included the resources needed for setting up such a system. This study can serve as a reference for anyone in the learning professions who are considering using AR in learning. They can assess the benefits and the challenges to make their decision
REFERENCES and LITERATURE REVIEW
 James G. Greeno and the Middle School Mathematics Through Applications Project Group, “The Situativity of Knowing, Learning, and Research”, American Psychologist, January 1998
 Carmen Juan, Francesca Beatrice, Juan Cano, “An Augmented Reality System for Learning the Interior of the Human Body”, proceeding of Eighth IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, 2008, P186-188.
 Gunnar Liestol, “Augmented Reality and Digital Genre Design – Situated Simulations on the iPhone”, proceeding of ISMAR-AMH 2009 IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality – Arts, Media and Humanities, 2009. P29-34
 Tsung-Yu Liu, Tan-Hsu Tan, Yu-Lin Chu, “2D Barcode and Augmented Reality Supported English Learning System”, proceeding of 6th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on computer and Information Science (ICIS 2007)
 Waleed Fayiz Maqableh, Manjit Singh Sidhu, “From Boards to Augmented Reality Learning”, Proceeding of 2010 International Conference on Information Retrieval and Knowledge Management (CAMP), 2010, P184-187.
 Desi Dwistratanti Sumadio, Dayang Rohaya Awang Rambli, “Preliminary Evaluation on User Acceptance of the Augmented Reality Use for Eduaction”, proceeding of 2010 Second International Conference on Computer Engineering and Applications
 Jerry Fook Lim Tai, Aaron Chi En Cheng, “The Impact of Augmented Reality Software with Inquiry-based Learning on Students’ Learning of Kinematics Graph”, proceeding of 2010 2nd International Conference on Education Technology and Computer (ICETC), 2010, Volume 2, P1-5.
 Daniel Wagner, Istvan Barakonyi, “Augmented Reality Kanji Learning”, proceedings of the Second IEEE and ACM International Symposium of Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR ’03) 2003.
 Suya You, Ulrich Neumann, “Mobile Augmented Reality for Enhancing E-Learning and E-Business”,
 Augmented Reality in language learning
 “Augmented Reality in Education”,WikEd
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