Literature Review Of Soil Types And Standards Environmental Sciences Essay

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Soil stabilization is that the sempiternal physical and chemical transform of soils to enhance the physical lands of the soil. The trim strength of the soil could be improved and manage the shrink-swell lands of a soil by stabilization, in order that humanizing the load manner ability of a sub-grade to maintain pavements and foundations.

Stabilization is a treatment technology for contaminated soils, but also for clean up/remediation unaccompanied or as element of a brownfield redevelopment. Portland cement, usually amplified with further materials, like fly ash, GGBS, lime kiln dust, cement kiln dust, and lime, is used as a compulsory reagent in S/S owing to its capability to solidify (which is that the changing in physical properties) and stabilise (which is changing within the chemical properties) of a good form of risky materials. Stabilisation enhances the compressive strength, and additionally encompasses a reduction of the permeability and encapsulates toxic factors. Stabilisation would modify risky factors into less soluble, mobile or toxic forms. (

Mixing the correct and accurate mixture of binding reagents into unhygienic soils would allow them to be either excavated or disposed of during a landfill, or re-used them on site to maintain redevelopment. The Stabilization treatment has the further advantage of humanizing the structural properties of the site likewise.

There are some specific treatments effects additionally, like the permeability of waste substance may well be decreased and it additionally helping decrease the toxicity of pollutants.

One of the good strengths of S/S as a treatment technology is its capability to handle various different chemicals. The physical and chemical properties of cement make it particularly suited to solidification and stabilisation of hazardous materials as a result of it is multifaceted within the method it reacts with further materials, either binding them locking up free liquids and organic contaminants; or encapsulating them or chemically transforming them – within the case of heavy metals and other extra inorganics. The improved compressive strength of this type of soil treatment versus different treatment ways could serve to improve the site conditions for development additionally to treating the pollution.

Soil stabilization

The use of lime, cement or other binder materials to geotechnical develops areas of weak soil into a construction materials is an established and extremely cost-effective construction method. Virtually any soil found on site could be enhanced for bulk fill applications and to build roads, pavements, embankments, reinforced earth structures, railways, housings and industrial units.

By improving natural materials in situ, construction is applied cost-effectively and quickly. Many years of experience has established this method as the only viable choice for treating weak soils and it has been endorsed by the Highways Agency since 1976. Rising landfill prices have made this decision an economical choice for all contractors.

Soil Stabilisation for Construction

Stabilisation of clay kind soils in construction has been around for thousands of years, examples of Roman Lime stabilisation still exists throughout Europe. The process has been mechanised however the fundamental principle remains similar.

Lime stabilisation and cement stabilisation are effective and reasonable environmental solution for transforming unsuitable or marginal soils into usable construction materials.

Environmental benefits of soil stabilisation are considerable because it reduces each of the disposals of material previously classified as “waste” and also the import of pricey replacement material.

Soil Stabilisation Applications

Stabilisation could be carried out on a wide range of soils from silty gravels through to clays of extremely high plasticity. Typically cohesive clayey soils can react well with lime and higher silt content soils reacting well with cement.

The type and quantity of binder used, such as lime, cement, ground granulated blast-furnace slag and pulverised fuel ash, could be varied or utilized in combination to enable the development of the designer soil to meet the end application wants. This may rely on factors such as type and make up of the soil, speed of strength gain required, requirements to traffic the works during construction phase and also the longevity demands of the finished works. ( in Progress

Chapter 2

Mechanical stabilization

with well-graded materials nearly all air could be removed by compaction. This cannot happen with poorly-graded materials however their stability may well be improved by adding another material to fill the voids between the particles. The blending of materials has two main uses. The stability of cohesive soils of low strength is also improved by adding coarse material, and granular materials that are unstable due to lack of binding will be improved by adding fine material. The grading of mixture is important to make sure that each one of the voids is filled.

The granular materials specified by the (UK) Department of Transport for sub-base construction are examples of mechanically stable materials. Due to this case the materials are manufactured to possess grading that provide the specified stability however constant outcome can be achieved by blending naturally occurring soils to provide the specified particle size distribution.

Mechanical stabilization has drawbacks significantly in those countries that have heavy rainfall or where frost may be a downside. Although a mechanically stable material is extremely desirable it will not always be achieved and even when it can it is usually necessary to add a stabilizing agent to bring about an additional improvement within the properties of a fabric.

Cement stabilization

As BS12:1978 has documented that Portland cement is outlined as ‘a product consisting principally of calcium silicate, obtained by heating to partial fusion a pre-determined and homogeneous mixture of materials containing principally lime (CaO) and silica (SiO2) with a little proportion of alumina (Al2O3) and iron oxide (Fe2O3)’.

Definitions and Applications

Soil-cement and cement modified soil are two basic types included within the Cement-stabilized materials. Soil-cement is formed of pulverized soil material and aggregates, which are compacted into a high density with water and measured amounts by Portland cement.

In order to create an indurate material with its durability and strength, plenty enough cement is putted in to provide as the primary structural base layer during a flexible pavement or as a rigid pavements’ sub-base.

Cement-modified a soil is formed of a relatively small amount of Portland cement processed with a soil or aggregate material, and also the objective of changing undesirable properties of soils or the other materials in case they are adaptable in construction use. There are many Soil-cement products, like cement-treated aggregate base and recycled flexible pavements.

To enhance the sub-grade soils or to vary native aggregated, cement-modified soil is especially using as foundation in better high-priced transported aggregates lieu. Cement-treated or cement-stabilized soil or sub grade are included in different terms.

Soil stabilization additions

Stabilization Mechanisms

Properties of soil like plasticity, compressibility and permeability will call be altered by the addition of stabilizing agents however the most interest is typically in finding a means of increasing soil strength and resistance to softening by water.

Soil stabilization is also brought about in three ways, by bonding the soil particles together, by waterproofing them, or by a mixture of bonding and waterproofing. Stabilizing agents could therefore be classified according to the effects they produce.

Bonding agents stabilize soils by cementing the particles together so the impact of water on the structure is lessened. The effectiveness of this kind of stabilizer depends on the strength of the stabilized matrix, on whether or not a bond is formed between the soils and also the matrix, and on whether individual particles or agglomerations of particles are bonded together. These stabilizing agents do not water proof a soil, although a soil that has been successfully bonded together can absorb less water than an untreated material owing to the reduced ability of the bonded soil to swell.

Stabilization by physical reaction

Waterproofing agents and few bonding agents fall into this category the only case is that of bitumen, that bonds the particles together and additionally produces a waterproofing effect. The bitumen is added to the soil within the form of a liquid of low viscosity that is subsequently converted into a highly viscous semi-solid state by a reduction in temperature or by evaporation of solvent. The soil particles are embedded in a very solid matrix of bitumen however the bonding between the soil and also the matrix is only molecular and relatively weak. Since bitumen is hydrophobic it also imparts resistance to water absorption.

Cement partly comes into this category as the major part of the strength of a cement-stabilized soil is derived from the physical strength of matrix of hydrated cement. However, with most soils a chemical reaction takes place between a number of the components of the soil and lime liberated as the cement hydrates.

Stabilization by reaction between two or more chemicals

Most of the stabilizing agents during this category are bonding agents. They are formed within the soil by the addition of two or more chemicals, which in themselves are not stabilizing agents however that react by precipitation or polymerization to make a stabilizer matrix around the soil particles. A simple example of stabilization by precipitation is that the formation of calcium silicate in a very soil by the reaction of sodium silicate and calcium chloride.

Stabilization by chemical reaction between the soil and stabilizer

Hydrated lime is that the best example of a bonding agent during this group; the strength being derived from the reaction between lime and clay fraction of soil.

The group of organic cationic materials that are used as waterproofing agents also belong to this class. These materials readily ionize and also the large organic cations therefore formed are able to attach themselves to the soil particles by cation-exchange reactions. Once attached they are difficult to displace, and since every particle is in effect surrounded by hydrophobic cations the soil is made waterproof.


Portland cement consists of calcium-silicates and calcium-aluminates that, when combine with water, hydrate to make the cementing compounds of calcium-silicate hydrate and calcium-aluminates-hydrate, likewise additional calcium hydroxide. Owing to the cementitious material, also the calcium hydroxide (lime) formed; Portland cement could be successful in stabilizing either granular or fine-grained soils, same as aggregates or miscellaneous materials.

Because of the pozzolanic reaction the permeability of cement-stabilized material is greatly reduced. The result is a moisture-resistant material that is highly durable and resistant to leaching over the long term.

Soil stabilization with cement (cement stabilization) could be a modern and efficient method of recycling and strengthening inert and waste soils or other construction materials for foundation to buildings and vehicular paving, giving substantial benefits to the developer and contractor alike.

In general, there are three categories of soil-and-cement mixtures as follows

Plastic soil-cement is an unhardened mixture of soil and cement that contains, at the time of putting enough water to produce a consistency similar to plastering mortar. It is used to line or pave ditches, slopes, and other areas that can be erodible. It maybe also used for emergency road repair by mixing high-early-strength cement into the natural material in mud holes.

Cement-modified soil is an unhardened or semi hardened mixture of soil and cement. The chemical and physical properties of that soil would be modified when relatively small quantities of Portland cement are added to granular soil or silt-clay soil.

Cement decreases the plasticity and water-holding capacity of the soil and enhances its bearing value. The degree of development depends upon the number of the cement used and also the category of soil. In cement-modified soil, only sufficient cement is used to vary the physical properties of the soil to the degree needed.

Base courses, sub-bases, treated sub-grades, highway fills, and as trench backfill material will required when use the Cement-modified soils.

Compacted soil-cement, frequently referred to assembly soil-cement, could be a mixture of crushed soil and calculated amounts of Portland cement and water that is compacted to a high density. The result is an inflexible slab having moderate compressive strength and resistance to the disintegrating effects of wetting and drying and freezing and thawing.

Materials for soil-cement

Soil, Portland cement, and water are the three fundamental materials needed to make soil-cement. Low cost is achieved mainly by using reasonable priced local materials. The soil that builds up the bulk of soil-cement is either in position or obtained nearby and therefore the water is frequently dragged only short distances. The word soil, as utilized in soil-cement, means that approximately any mixture of gravel, sand, silt, and clay, and contains such materials as cinder, caliche, shale, laterite, and several other waste materials as well as dirty and poorly graded sands from gravel pits. The quantities of Portland cement and water to bead and therefore the density to that the mixture has to be compacted are determined from tests. The water provides two principles: it assists to achieve highest compaction by greasing the soil grains and it is needed for hydration of the cement that freezes and connects the soil into a solid mass. Appropriately produced soil-cement contains enough water for both of the principles. The cement possibly are going to be approximately any category of Portland cement that complies with the requirements of the latest ASTM (American Safety for testing and Materials), AASHTO (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials), or federal specifications. Types I (normal) and IA (air entrained) Portland cements are the most commonly frequently used.

The water utilized in soil-cement ought to be relatively clean and free from harmful amounts of alkalies, acid, or organic matter. Water fit to drink is suitable. Typically seawater has been used suitably when fresh water has been unobtainable.

Moisture content

Moisture content is that the quantity of water contained within the material, for instance, soil (called soil moisture), rock, ceramics, fruit, or wood. Water content has a wide range usage in field of science and techniques. It is indicated as a ratio, which might be ranged from 0 (completely dry) to the value of the materials’ porosity at saturation. It is often addicted on a volumetric or mass (gravimetric) basis.

Water has a large difference on thermal conductivity than greatest soil particles and air (the soil’s thermal properties are determined by these three). The thermal conductivity of water is much better than that of air, which means the higher soil moisture content offers a larger the thermal conductivity.

A greater the soil moisture content will give an additional conductivity within the soil thermal likely of water. Consequently, a soggy soil has conductivity close to water.

Although, only whereas the soil moisture content is full, it is not saying that the temperature of soil can increase faster within the Sun than a dry soil. Evaporation of the water can take lots of the Sun’s energy away before the soil becoming warm.

Accordingly, dry soils will increase the temperature easily from daylight and decrease faster at night time. This is suspecting situation that there is no vegetation grows over the soil. The water disappears in most of the wet soils and keeps the soil’s temperature increase as fast during the day, and decrease slowly at the night time, due to the reason of their larger heat capacity (because of higher water content).

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Compare with clays and peat. Soils are better to keep the water in them (reducing evaporation), like clays and peat, are the exception to the above; they will not evaporate evaporate as much water and thus do heat up in the sun, and do not lose as much energy at night time. Peat bogs are typically very warm, although a part of that energy comes from rapidly occurring rotting of organic matter. Wet clays may also become very warm in the Sun.

The reasons for carrying out moisture content tests on soils fail into three categories:

To determine the moisture content of the soil in situ, using undisturbed or disturbed sample.

To determine the plasticity and shrinkage limits of fine-grained soils, that moisture content is used as the index.

To measure the moisture content of samples used for laboratory testing, typically both before and after tests. This is normally done on all test samples as a routine procedure.


the liquid and plastic limits give the most helpful way of identifying and classifying the fine-grained cohesive soils. Particle size tests provide quantitative data on the range of sizes of particles and therefore the quantity of clay present. However, clay particles are too small to be examined visually however the Atterberg limits enable clay soils to be classified physically, and therefore the probable types of clay minerals to be assessed.

Classification is usually accomplished by means of the plasticity chart. In UK practice this chart is split into five zones, with the categories for clays:

Low plasticity (CL), less than 35 liquid limit.

Medium plasticity (CI), liquid limit from 35 to 50.

High plasticity (CH), liquid limit from 50 to 70.

Very high plasticity (CV), liquid limit from 70 to 90.

Extremely high plasticity (CE), liquid limits exceeding 90.


Soil moisture content

Soil moisture content is decided with using the time reflectometry technique, which based on different in dielectric constant of the material with different moisture content. A range of the dielectric constant of dry soil will be given from three to eight.

Basically the change of the moisture content would have two effects on stabilized materials:

At a constant of air-voids a decrease in moisture content, it also consorts with an increase of dry density and a decrease within the water ratio.

At low moisture contents it has more decrease in moisture content with a reduction in the degree of hydration of the stabilizer.

Either of those factors will have an effect on the compressive strength but they have an opposite direction on the effects of work.

Determination of the moisture content to be used

At the initial stage of testing within the laboratory the moisture content at that is to prepare the samples is assessed on the idea of compaction tests with using the material mixed with the proportion of stabilizer to be used in practice.

Due to the change of the compaction properties with time of cement-stabilized material, it is quite important that any delays happening between mixing and compaction that it is expectant will occur in practice are reflected by the laboratory procedure.

Chapter 3


Benefits of StabilisationRotivation to Maximise Clay/Lime Contact

Reduce the moisture content of the soil

Converts waste material into material fit for construction

Reduces the export and disposal of unsuitable material

Reduces the need to import material

Reduces construction time and cost

Re use excavated materials and contaminated materials as engineering fill, capping and sub-base

Re use drainage and foundation a risings in place of granular backfill – only suitable when soils are lime treated

Recycling of the site won materials assists greatly with the site Waste Management Plans

Stabilization will be used to treat a wide range of sub-grade materials from expansive clays to granular materials. Stabilization could be achieved with a range of chemical additives which including lime, fly-ash, and Portland cement, as well as by-products like lime-kiln dust (LKD) and cement-kiln dust (CKD). Proper design and testing is a vital element of any stabilization project. This allow for the establishment of design criteria as well as the determination of the proper chemical additive and admixture rate to be used to achieve the desired engineering properties.

Benefits of the stabilization method will include:

Higher resistance (R) values

Reduction in plasticity

Lower permeability

Reduction of pavement thickness

Elimination of excavation, material hauling and handling, and base importation

Aids compaction

Provides “all-weather” access onto and at intervals comes sites

Another form of soil treatment closely related to soil stabilization is soil modification, generally referred as “mud drying” or soil conditioning. Although some stabilization inherently happens in soil modification, the distinction is that soil modification is merely a means to reduce the moisture content of a soil to expedite construction, whereas stabilization could substantially increase the shear strength of a material such that it could be incorporated into the project’s structural design.

The determining factors associated with soil modification vs. soil stabilization may be the existing moisture content, the end use of the soil structure and ultimately the cost benefit provided.

Equipment for the stabilization and modification processes include:

chemical additive spreaders

soil mixers (reclaimers)

portable pneumatic storage containers

water trucks

deep lift compactors

motor graders


In situ treatment is usually much more cost-effective than typical ‘dig and dump’ methods, that incur the price of vehicle movements, landfill taxes and also the introduction of virgin collective. Treated soils would generally be designed to be stiffer than typical granular materials, leading to decreases thickness design for foundations and/or subsequent pavement layers.


Soil stabilisation will cut down construction periods by minimising site preparation requirements, tipping and import activities. The process also enables wet ground to be dried and strengthened, prepared for immediate use. The addition of quicklime, for instance, immediately dries up wet clays and allows extended operating in wet conditions and into the winter.


Importation of bulky quantity of valuable resources to site, such as one type of the subbase materials, may be completely avoided by treating in situ soils, using a fast and straightforward treatment process, to achieve equivalent or higher levels of structural stiffness.

Environmental impact

Conventional ground improvement techniques involve the excavation and removal of inappropriate materials, followed by the importation of large quantities of virgin aggregates. Connected structure activities and vehicle movements – that are able to run to hundreds or even thousands for huge projects – may be replaced by the importation and in situ mixing of small quantities of cementitious powders. The end result is lower cost, lower obstruction and less neighbour argument.

Avoidance of landfill tax

Soil stabilisation uses in situ soils already obtainable on site. These are enhanced to provide the properties required for construction. This could differ from a simple procedure to allow use in landscaping or embankments all the way through to use in structural applications. As all obtainable soils can be used, tipping is practically removed further as connected tipping charges.

There are also other advantages of stabilization that are:

The moisture content of the soil could be reduced

Some of the waste material could be changed into the material that fit the construction.

Some of material could be utilized in suitable quantity instead of important material to reduce the necessity to those important materials.

Chapter 4

in highway or transportation engineering area; it is a foundational issue to work out how strong the ground is for the road need to be built. The dry density and moisture content in the compaction test is different between different types of soils but owing to the material is made up by different particles; two different soils will have a different behaviour and physical property in the stand point of engineering. Thus, a more accurate compaction test needs to be developed for classify the ability of soil which using as a subgrade and base material for road construction. So The California bearing test (CBR) was developed by the California road division in 1929.


The California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test was originally developed by the California state Highway Department in 1920s, and it has been modified by the engineers of the U.S. Army Corps later, and at last adopted by ASTM and AASHTO. The CBR test is a penetration test with using a stand piston that penetration the soil with using 0.05 inch per minute as a stand rate. At each seven penetration depths a unit loads need to be recorded that normally 0.1 and 0.2 inch. The principle for this method is to determine the relationship between force and penetration when a cylindrical plunger with a standard cross-sectional area is made to penetrate the soil at a rate given by requirement. The CBR value is computed by dividing the unit load that recorded by a standard unit load that is required to penetration for a high quality crushed rock material. The CBR test is conducted on a sample of soil which with amount of moisture content – the water has been soaked in is conducted to simulate the worst condition under that the pavement would perform.

Some equation from the calculation related to CBR:

Dry density specification. The mass of soil, m1 (in g), required to just fill the CBR mould of volume

Vm(in cm3) is given by the equation


w is the moisture content of the soil (in %); and

ρd is the specified dry density (in Mg/m3).

Air voids specification. The dry density, ρd (in Mg/m3), corresponding to an air voids content of Va(in %) is given by the equation


Va is the air voids expressed as a percentage of the total volume of soil;

ρs is the particle density (in Mg/m3);

w is the soil moisture content (in %);

ρw is the density of water (in Mg/m3), assumed equal to 1.

The quality of soil sub grade in terms of unconfined compressive strength is classified as soft, medium, stiff, and hard, while it is classified as very poor, poor to fair, fair, good, and excellent in relation to the CBR values.


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