The roman empire was very different compared to its other ruling period during that time. it came about people were tired of the kings ruling before this time and people wanted to have change that came about. The previous roman ruling got over thrown due the amount of dislike it had received from others in its time period, there were many wars that came about during the time of the creation that led up to the roman empire, between civil and political battles, the civilians had have enough of it and then Punic war had come about and it had a huge impact on the roman republic and where it was at during this time period. There were many different culture’s in Rome during that time period and still is today, and there is still a lot of trading that goes on between many different countries, the one thing that has stuck out for me during this time period is the Pax Romana.
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The Pax Romana was a peace treaty that had existed between cities in the roman empire. It lasted from 187 bcc to 18 ad, it was period of a very peaceful time and there was very little war happening during this time, and during this time period it was also known as the golden age because of the such peaceful time. the Pax Romana came about when Octavian Caesar’s son had beat mark Anthony during the Actium war, which was one of the last wars that led up do the Pax Romana. The Actium war took place in twenty-one by on the Ionian Sea. That war put Octavian in a very good spot becase he had the upper hand after the war and get all the leverage and power he needed over the roman empire. Which then brought Octavian to be the first emperor of the Romain empire, which was a very big role during that time because no one person during that time had control of Rome before, so it was a very different to people, but with that type of power came some unpopular attention towards Octavian, there was many people out after him, but they were out to get Julius Caesar.
Brutus and Gaius cassius were after Julius Caesar for a very long time, they had an idea of to flee Rome and create their own army, but it didn’t work out in there favor because they ended up being captured by the united forces of Octavian and Antony in a battle that took place during in a small town in the Philippine’s, that so happened to be started by Julius Caesar in forty two bc, but then when they were found they both (Brutus and cassius) had both committed suicide, but with both of them both wanting power, there was issues that had aroused between the two of them, so mark Antony had went to Egypt and had made an alliance with Cleopatra, who was an Egyptian queen and Octavian had claimed himself as a ruler to the Romain empire. But then during that time he had declared mark Antony as a traitor towards Rome and declared war on Cleopatra, when that had happened during the war of Actium had broke out.
Actium was a naval battle had had taken place in 31 bc, and it had taken place off the coast of Greece, Antony had hope to take out Octavian by out numbering him or break his battle ships, but that didn’t work at all, because most of the fleet had broken off from the rest of the pack and they had no choice but surrender to Octavian.
When they had surrendered to Octavian they both mark Antony had Cleopatra had committed suicide, which enturn left there three kids parentless, so Octavian had brought their kids back to Rome with them. Just because they were saved by Octavian doesn’t mean they were liked by any means, they were brought throughout the streets of Rome as a sign to others as captive’s, which was more of a sign of dominance to theirs in Rome showing what would happen if you rebelled against him during his rule.
After the domination of Cleopatra and Antony, it had open up a new time period in the roman times. for the first time in a very long time (almost ten years) the roman culture had not been in a war, which was great for the capital because that meant that the people of Rome could have time to regroup as a whole and change the ways laws and people were treated, but the Rome was still without a ruler but that didn’t last very long. Octavian had been a ruler by himself for four years after that but then after four years he had accepted the name of emperor Augustus, which was the name he had cared for the most, but with that came a lot of pressure from citizens because for the longest of time the power was spread between multiple people and just not one person, which some people were for the idea but many people during that time weren’t too fond of that idea, and that time period was known as the pinacate of Rome during the Pax Romana which meant worthy of honor. One of the things that was made during that time period which is still implied today is taxation and government. But the biggest issue people in the roman empire had with that is that there was one person in charge of the money. So, with that being said people were worried that he was going to be very greedy, which wasn’t the case at all. to me the idea of taxes is a very good idea because during that time it had helped out paying for damages that were brought out by the war. And in today’s times it is still used for that and helps pay for things in town that need to be fixed.
Also, during the time of the Pax Romana there was new towns and colonies that had been brought into the picture, which was very good because it brought more people into the Rome which created for more of diverse culture, and during that time period helped out a lot because they had just gotten out of a war ridden time period. So, it was a good thing for the romans to have a time of reform and diversity between them. Augustus is known for being very strict, so when there was more diversity it’s kind of made it difficult for people to be culture diverse. With all the money that had been collected by the government he had used it to help rebuild temples and the city as a whole, but he didn’t want anyone to pray to other gods but his own, which is very difficult to do if you had only prayed to other gods before coming to Rome. But also, with Augustus ruling and being very by the book so to speak, he had come up with his own set of laws. Those sets of laws more had to do with married couples. He punished what we could call today and cheaters, which never is a good thing in today’s times and back then, it made divorce more difficult to come across, also he came up with certain time frames that the couples needed to be divorced and if they were under a certain age had to remarry as well. To really make his point very valid he Augustus had his daughter sent to an island where it was only female, which was a very smart move for him because with that being said and proven, it didn’t matter who you were, if you disobeyed his rules you were bound to be punished.
After the Punic war it was also a great time for the people of Rome because they had concorded a lot of the land in the process of doing so, in fact this was the most amount of land that was taken over by any ruler during his time period. There was a setback during that time period though, when he was trying to take over land in modern day Germania, many of his men were killed in the process, three groups of soldiers were killed trying to take over. Which was crazy to think that during all the other hardships they have seen during their time, that just trying to take control of a small town a good portion of his army was shut down and force to retreat. But there was a wall that was known as Hadrian’s wall (the wall was started to be built in 122 ce) that would-be set-in place so that way there wasn’t any more expansion into Rome because the romans were worried that other armies would try to take over and take over all the hard work that Augustus had worked very hard and for a long time for. The wall had many forts set up, so the soldiers could be ready in case that there was a battle that broke out, so they could be ready at any given time. it was a very long wall that was built, the wall had span over seventy-two miles long, and it took a very long time to build and a lot of the wall is still there.
During the time period of the Pax Romana there was times where the “golden age” had some issues. In a very town that was called Britannia had a rebellion towards Rome that was led by boudica, who was a Celtic queen. The war didn’t end in the best of ways, Augustus ended that war really in a huge massacre of the Celtic army during the time, which then in another rebellion destroyed the temple of Jerusalem. And that was very detrimental to the roman culture because that temple is where many of the roman people went to pray. But the outcome of that rebellion is that Jewish people were not welcomed into Rome anymore, but those occurrences weren’t very normal during this time. the roman culture wasn’t kept up with pure violence, even though Rome controlled a lot of territory during that time period they offered many different things to others during that time period, which was very considerate compared to what the romans did during that time period to get to where they were during those times of war. For the higher ups in the roman culture they were given many different options during that time, they had the option to adapt to the roman cultures such as the way the romans dressed and how to get use to their laws. Also, there homes could have many different designs inside, which was very considerate during that time period because of the amount of the struggle the roman army and the types of battles that they had to face in the process of hat time.
But during that time period after Augustus had passed, there was others that took place of him, but there was one who was known as Nero, who basically had the last straw of the roman empire. Nero was only a ruler fourteen years, during that time he wasn’t known for the good things that he did basically joust only for how he was the last roman emperor. There five rulers including Augustus himself which was known as the last five. During the time of Nero’s rule he was thought to be a very negative person, one of his biggest moments he was known for was when the great fire of Rome, which was a fire that had lasted six days and burned a greater portion of Rome right to the ground, and with that being said he had used the Christians as a scapegoat as to blame to start the fire, which is very low for a ruler to blame people that were accepted in his culture was the fault to a fire, when in fact he Nero himself was the one to cause the fire, which was very messed up for him to do such a thing, it was mostly because he didn’t want them to be in his empire, and with that being done and many others incidents that happened during his ruling he wasn’t liked by many at all, then later on was the first and only roman emperor that had taken his own life. Which then with that being done he was very last emperor of the roman empire. But this was very comparable to our lives now in many ways.
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During the upbringing of our country along with Rome, there was a few similarities between the two of them. When we in present times were taking over places to establish what we know now as the united states of America and Rome, we had to fight for what we had, many of the battles on the water, endeavor foreign places that we have never been before. Also like the romans we had to fight for land, and we had developed along the way. But the biggest deal of all is if the romans had never overcome the power of Rome, there would be no other part of history and who knows where we would be in today’s time period.
Because of the Pax Romana, there was its high points along with the low points, there was also struggle along the way and rulers who weren’t liked as well, but it worked out in the end for the better because if there wasn’t this hardship of time, who knows where we would be now. There wouldn’t have been a lot of things that we have in life. But it was a great time to be adapted to other cultures and rulers during that time period. Also, we wouldn’t have seen three different civilizations come about in this. But in the end it, in some way it had an impact on our lives today, such as the idea of coinage, who knew something we deal with just about every day such a small concept had come from a time period such a long time ago, but has a huge impact on our lives today which not a lot of people think about it all in there daily lives. Also, the romans had come up with the calendar, which again was such a small concept to us during this time but was a huge achievement in their time period. Needless to say, the roman had a great impact on our culture and society today, they had many great achievement’s that if they didn’t have along the way, we wouldn’t have been able to get where we are at today, which is crazy to think that something that happened so long ago in double digit time periods would affect where us as the united states of America our at today.
( No Author) http://www.ushistory.org/civ/6c.aspPax romana, the ancient civilization
( Joshua Cole, Carol Symes) western civilization volume one fourth edition ( no date given)
( The editors of encyclopedia Britannia) https://www.britannica.com/biography/Nero-Roman-emperor ( October 21, 2019)
( John Misachi) What was the great fire of rome? https://www.worldatlas.com/articles/what-was-the-great-fire-of-rome.html ( May 21st , 2018)
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